1028Setting up GitHub Command-Line Access

This is a short, condensed instruction how to set-up command-line access to github.com. Written is response to onboard new FabAcademy students - and get them started with MkDocs.

This guides is for macOS 12 or higher. My Mac uses macOS Ventura 13.0.01.

Step 1: Creating a new SSH Key

Go to the .ssh directory.

$ cd ~/.ssh

Made new key:

$ ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -C "your_email@example.com"
  • Don't just copy, put in your email. I also added a password.
  • Also, don't copy the $, just the ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -C "your_email@example.com" part. But with your email.

You can name your key. For this example, we call it id_github_test.

Step 2: Adding SSH Key to ssh-agent.

$ eval "$(ssh-agent -s)"

Step 3: Adding Key Info to config

Open .ssh/config in your favourite text editor. If you want to stay at the command line, use nano.

Add the following:

Host *.github.com
  AddKeysToAgent yes
  UseKeychain yes
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_github_test

Step 4: Adding the Key to ssh-agent

Adding private key to ssh-agent

$ ssh-add --apple-use-keychain ~/.ssh/id_github_test

This add the new key to the Apple Keychain.

If you used a passphrase when you created the key, you will be asked for it now.

Enter passphrase for /Users/georg/.ssh/id_github_test: 
Identity added: /Users/georg/.ssh/id_github_test (your_email@example.com)

Step 5: Adding Public Key to github.com

  • Log into Github
  • Profile > Settings > SSH and GPG Keys
  • Click 'New SSH Key'

Copy and paster your public key, in this example case, id_github_test.pub.

The tutorial on Github suggest to copy the public key using a command:

$ pbcopy < ~/.ssh/id_github_test.pub      

pbcopy - for paste board copy is the terminal interface to the macOS' Copy & Paste. pbcopy < read the content of a file into the copy memory. After running pbcopy you can press Command-V to paste the text.

  • Paste the copied SSH Public Key.

Step 5.1: Two-Factor Authentication at GitHub.com

I setup Two-Factor Authentication at GitHub.com, I had to confirm the addition of a new key via my mobile GitHub App. Your mileage might vary.

Step 6: Testing the connection

$ ssh -T git@github.com
Hi trembl! You've successfully authenticated, 
but GitHub does not provide shell access.

Ok, great! It worked!

Now you can clone, add, commit, push and pull!

Sources:

1025hugo Shortcuts

Quick run through hugo Installation & Update on macOS.

Install hugo

brew install hugo

Check Version

hugo version

hugo v0.109.0+extended darwin/amd64 BuildDate=unknown

Upgrade hugo

brew upgrade hugo
Warning: hugo 0.109.0 already installed

Create New Site

hugo new site my-new-hugo-site
cd my-new-hugo-site
git init
git submodule add https://github.com/theNewDynamic/gohugo-theme-ananke themes/ananke
echo "theme = 'ananke'" >> config.toml

hugo does not come with an in-built theme, therefore we need to clone the anake theme into themes/ananke. More hugo themes. Clone and update config.toml.

Serve Site

hugo server

Build Site

Just hugo, nothing else.

hugo
Start building sites … 
hugo v0.109.0+extended darwin/amd64 BuildDate=unknown
INFO 2022/12/26 19:37:15 syncing static files to /

                   | EN  
-------------------+-----
  Pages            | 10  
  Paginator pages  |  0  
  Non-page files   |  0  
  Static files     |  1  
  Processed images |  0  
  Aliases          |  1  
  Sitemaps         |  1  
  Cleaned          |  0  

Total in 154 ms

1024mkDocs Shortcuts

Quick run through mkDocs Installation & Update on macOS.

Install mkDocs

pip install mkdocs

Check Version

mkdocs -V

mkdocs, version 1.1.2 from /usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/mkdocs (Python 3.9)

Update mkDocs

pip install -U mkdocs
mkdocs -V

mkdocs, version 1.4.2 from /usr/local/lib/python3.9/site-packages/mkdocs (Python 3.9)

Install mkdocs-material

pip install mkdocs-material

Update to latest mkdocs-material

pip install -U mkdocs-material

Create new mkDocs Site

mkdocs new my-new-site

Start Serving Site

cd my-new-site
mkdocs serve

Stop Serving Site

⌨️: ^[ctrl]-C

1002Rename Branches on GitHub

Renaming a branch on Github is straight-forward:

The "Lean More" link has some instructions how to update the local environments:

Your members will have to manually update their local environments. We'll let them know when they visit the repository, or you can share the following commands.

git branch -m oldbranchname newbranchname
git fetch origin

Username for 'https://github.com': trembl
Password for 'https://trembl@github.com': 

I tried automatically to log-in with my GitHub Password.

remote: Support for password authentication was removed on 
August 13, 2021. Please use a personal access token instead.
remote: Please see https://github.blog/2020-12-15-token-
authentication-requirements-for-git-operations/ for more information.

https://github.blog/2020-12-15-token-authentication-requirements-for-git-operations/

Get a Personal Access Token

Ok, we need a Personal Access Token instead of the password!

Go to github.com > Settings > Developer Settings > Personal access tokens, and generate a new token with full repo access.

Once we use the token instead of the password, it works.

git branch -u origin/main main
# Branch 'main' set up to track remote branch 'main' from 'origin'.
git remote set-head origin -a
# origin/HEAD set to main

988Reset Local Git Repo

git reset --hard origin/main

main is the name your main branch.

976Git, Mac, SSH Keys and the OSX Keychain

When using git with a key that has a passphrase, you are asked the passphrase every time you pull/push. To make this a bit more convenient, add the key to the OSX Keychain.

Store key in OSX Keychain:

ssh-add -K ~/.ssh/my_key

Open .ssh/config

Host *
  UseKeychain yes
  AddKeysToAgent yes
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/my_key

946Pulling a GitLab Repository with Tokens & Webhooks

Update from 864 Pulling a GitHub Repository with Tokens & Webhooks

GitLab requries a gitlab-ci-token: prefix:

$token = 'gitlab-ci-token:abcdefghijklmopq'

944Overwrite changes with git pull

git pull does not overwrite any changed files by default. If you want to overwrite - and loose - any changes, use git reset --hard origin/master.

864Pulling a GitHub Repository with Tokens & Webhooks

Here is how to sync a WordPress Theme from Github to your own server:

Create a Personal Access Token on GitHub


Webhook on GitHub:
https://www.trembl.org/update.php
Webhook on GitHub for .htaccess protected directory:
https://username:passwd@www.trembl.org/update.php
initialise:
cd $temp_dir git init // initialize git git pull https://{$token}@github.com/{$repo}
update.php:
<?php // path to local tmp directory $temp_dir = '/my/local/tmp/directory/'; // path to local theme directory $theme_dir = "/my/local/theme/directory/"; // access token from GitHub $token = 'abcdefghijk'; // Repo $repo = 'github.com/trembl/SuperNiceRepo.git'; // - - - - - // change to local git directory chdir($temp_dir); // resets local git echo exec('git reset --hard 2>&1') . ", "; // get latest from github echo exec("git pull https://$token@$repo 2>&1"); // delete theme dir echo "\n\nDeleting Theme Directory.\n"; echo exec("rm -rf $theme_dir*"); // * deletes all files within the directory // Copying Theme from $temp_dir to $theme_dir echo "\n\nCopying Theme from tmp folder to wp-content.\n"; echo exec("cp -a $temp_dir/* $theme_dir"); // cp -a $temp_dir/* copies everything _except_ invisible files, like .git ?> update.php protected by .htaccess? 860 Access a URL behind htaccess/htpasswd
Protect update.php ONLY with .htaccess? 940 Protecting a Single File with .htaccess


Q & A

I get the following error message: Stopping at filesystem boundary (GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM not set). That means git is not initalized. Run git init